Hypertension

What is hypertension?
Hypertension is high blood pressure.
Prehypertension is blood pressure 120-139 / 80-89
Hypertension is blood pressure 140/90 or above
 
What are causes of hypertension?
Essential hypertension do not have an identifiable cause and it occurs in about 95% to 99%
1% to 5% of hypertensives are caused by the following:
        - Sleep apnea
        - Chronic kidney disease
        - Cushing's syndrome or steroid therapy
        - Coarctation of the aorta
        - Thyroid or parathyroid disease
        - Pheochromocytoma
        - Excess sodium or alcohol intake
 
What are complications due to hypertension?
Heart wall muscle thickening Hypertension
Heart failure
Stroke
Kidney Damage
Heart Attack
Retinopathy: damage to the retina (located in the eye)
 
What are the symptoms?
Severe headaches
Nose bleeds
Chest pain
Many do not experience any symptoms
 
How is hypertension treated and how can I help?
Ultimate goal is to reduce your risk of heart and kidney disease / complications
Goal blood pressure <140/90 and if you are diabetic then it is <130/80
There are several different blood pressure medications that your doctor can prescribe
Losing weight
DASH diet: fruits, vegetables, lowfat dairy products, reduced saturated and total fat
Low sodium intake (< 2.4gm per day)
Aerobic physical activity such as walking 30 minutes every day
Discontinuing alcohol consumption
Discontinuing tobacco smoking
 
*Please consult your doctor if you have any further questions.